In a story rife with tragic misunderstandings, Quasimodo's belief that the Truands are Esmeralda's enemies is perhaps the most tragic. He unwittingly aids Frollo's plan to destroy the gypsy by vigorously defending the church against the Truand assault and aiding the soldiers. In this, he mirrors Esmeralda's own misunderstanding in that she believes the soldier Phoebus to be her friend when, in fact, her love for him yields her nothing but misery. Frollo uses Gringoire's knowledge of the Truands to oust Esmeralda from her sanctuary and the King unwittingly aids Frollo's cause when he, like Quasimodo, mistakenly believes that the Truands wish to hang Esmeralda. The Truands emerge as arguably the true victims of the story as they willingly and needlessly sacrifice their lives trying to free Esmeralda.
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame: Novel Summary: Book X Analysis