1. How does the protagonist Shukhov change over the course of the day described in the novel?
Shukhov is introduced as an honest but somewhat limited or self-interested man of humble origins, whose first action in the day described is to attempt to be granted sick leave and thus be spared the arduous work otherwise in store. He is presented not as greedy or manipulative for trying to avoid his duties as a prisoner in a Stalinist labor camp, but rather as simply human, a stand in for any and every man in such unjust circumstances. It seems the reason he is in prison at all is more due to political forces beyond his control than any fault of his own, yet his acceptance of his punishment shows a conformist personality disinclined to confrontation who would rather live out his sentence quietly than raise a ruckus. Once it is clear he will spend this day as he does most, Shukhov resigns himself to the grueling work ahead in the compound, but nevertheless manages to enjoy both his meals and his thoughts. Over the course of the novel, he begins to question the value he initially placed on scheming for food above all else, and to listen to his bunk mate Alyoshka with increased attention and appreciation for the Baptist’s life philosophy. Alyoshka suggests that prisoners ought to rejoice because their circumstances permit seemingly endless reflection on the Bible and its messages. By the time lights go out at nightfall and another day is brought to an end in the camp, Shukhov has for the first time given away part of the spoils of Caesar’s package to his newfound spiritual guide. Most tellingly, he seems to be a happier man for it. Reflecting on the day’s adventures, he is at peace with his actions and their consequences, and Solzhenitsyn seems to suggest he will be less conflicted serving the remaining 3,653 days in his sentence now that he has found more value in nurturing his spiritual needs than those of his body alone.
2. What characters serve as allies or enemies of Shukhov’s struggle and growth?
Ivan Denisovich Shukhov is a rather solitary protagonist, and unpretentious in his heroic everyday struggle to eke out an existence among his fellow members of Gang 104. While Alyoshka the Baptist is clearly the primary motivator for Shukhov’s conversion from a mere believer in God to a spiritual being who thinks beyond his daily bodily wants, many of the characters support or challenge this major change in the protagonist. Tyurin and Pavlo are both highly respected bosses, and although neither seems to profess any religious beliefs of his own, both their words and actions encourage Shukhov to improve himself and to continue to do good work in the gang. Neither leader has become embittered by camp life, and both somewhat miraculously seem to retain a steady spirit and willingness to seek out creative means of benefiting the group. Kilgas is presented as another talented worker, and his positive attitude and good humor similarly support Shukhov’s development as a person. The kindly actions of the Estonians who let him borrow a cigarette, and even Gopchik whose youthful enthusiasm seems to kindle a fatherly or brotherly spirit in the older man also enable Shukhov to strive for a better life, moving onward and upward over the course of the novel to appreciate even finer things in life than sausage or cheese. Although Fetyukov is presented less sympathetically, as a man who has been broken by the system and who begs pathetically at every opportunity, even his behavior seems to serve as a counter-example for Shukhov, who derives pleasure from assuring himself he does not sink to such a level himself. Similarly, while the prison officials, warders and Snubnose in particular seem the only potential threats to Shukhov’s growth and spiritual development, their miserable actions and derogatory comments seem only to make him stronger. Even the medic’s inability to grant Shukhov a day of bed rest helps rather than hinders this determined man from pursuing his quest, which turns out to be of a more spiritual variety than he himself realizes when he awakens to again tackle the challenge of staying alive.
3. How does prison life reflect realities on “the outside”?
While the entire novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich takes place within the walls of a very concrete and real prison, references to Shukhov’s life before serving his sentence, and especially to the somewhat worse conditions of Ust-Izhma, suggest there is something of a parallel between lives lived “inside” and “outside.” While Stalin’s labor camps as described include outright horrible living conditions, at several points in the novel Shukhov struggles with whether he really would prefer life back home. Besides reflecting that he has become accustomed to camp life after so many years, and perhaps hardened to the realities of the world in a way less possible from outside, his doubt seems to suggest that the Communist ideology imprisons citizens metaphorically even when it does not do so physically.
Solzhenitsyn thus raises the question of how to live freely in an undemocratic society in which one’s thoughts are never private but rather always threaten the thinker with arrest and punishment. In a society based on fear of being turned in by a neighbor or colleague, relationships are understandably superficial and trust quite rare. The few friendships Shukhov seems to have cultivated inside the camp apparently have much in common with his familial relationships “outside.” While his wife’s letters indicated a willingness to cooperate with the system and paint carpets if that is what will earn them a living, Shukhov prefers not to follow such seemingly lucrative pursuits. All he wished and wishes is to continue his carpentry in peace, and this is equally impossible out of prison given the persecution of Soviet citizens for minor or even invented infractions. The decisions Shukhov makes in prison thus seem to mirror the way he lived his life on the outside, according to an internal measure of what is right and what is dignified, rather than an external one susceptible to manipulation by such oppressive political forces.
4. Does Solzhenitsyn seem to comment in this work on his own morals or vision of right and wrong?
Alexander Solzhenitsyn somewhat transparently based One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich on his own experiences in a Stalinist labor camp, where he was imprisoned for criticizing the Soviet leader in a private letter. It is no coincidence, therefore, that his protagonist is presented as a prisoner in mind, body and spirit for unjust reasons. Shukhov’s incarceration is due more to an unfair political system than any actual criminal actions committed, as is evidenced by references to charges of espionage when he was taken prisoner by the Germans in World War II. While the author does not explicitly criticize the Stalinist regime or communism more generally, his novel both indirectly and directly reveals deep doubts about the ability of such a system to judge its citizens.
The very selection of a prison as the locale for the entirety of the novel’s actions suggests Solzhenitsyn, from his own personal experiences under this regime, found fault with the contemporary political system. He takes as the very foundation of his literary work the question of whether it is in the interest of Soviet citizens to cooperate with the communist apparatus, since it seems to depend upon them imprisoning themselves, whether only physically or, even worse, spiritually. As belief in God or any other power other than the people was seen in Soviet Russia as anti-establishment, Shukhov’s very spirituality is part of what makes him a danger to the system and necessitates his incarceration. Solzhenitsyn’s depiction of Shukhov as an upstanding citizen despite his cruel fate shows the author’s own morality and keen sense of justice. This is evidenced by the fact that his protagonist grows from a simple man always looking out for how to scheme something extra, into a far more complex character who seeks more from life than just a physical existence. Shukhov’s spiritual transformation at the center of the novel suggests Solzhenitsyn’s own religious beliefs as well as his political persuasions, and his depiction of a prisoner who derives his own mechanisms for retaining dignity and morality show hope that human beings even under such dehumanizing systems as communism can continue to respect one another and themselves. Just as Shukhov will continue to remove his cap before meals for the next 3,653 days of his unjust prison sentence, so can citizens of the Soviet Union find their own creative channels of resistance.
5. What does the one day described suggest about the other days lived by Ivan Denisovich and his fellow prisoners?
Although the entire novel spans only one day, this particular twelve-hour or so period represents the other 364 days of trial and tribulation faced every year both by the protagonist, Shukhov, and the rest of the prison’s inmates. By starting the book with a description of reveille and concluding it at lights out, when the prisoners are checked a second time despite the cold night air, Solzhenitsyn creates a microcosm, or small world that represents a larger reality. Within this single day, Shukhov experiences hope and frustration, joy and despair, friendship and inhumanity, and both the indignity of scraping a secret hole in his mattress to store a bit of bread, and the spiritual satisfaction of having shared a cookie with one even less fortunate. His thoughts wander to other days and years, imparting to the reader a sense of continuity well beyond this particular day. However, between sunrise and bedtime Shukhov, his fellow members of Gang 104 and all the inhabitants of the Stalinist labor camp experience the same array of emotions as they do every other day of the year and every other day of their sentences. While the author’s choice to exclusively describe a single day draws attention to the brevity of life, it also permits the detailed descriptions of Shukhov’s thoughts between and during meals at a level of specificity rarely seen in works covering a longer time period. References to Shukhov’s life before the war and his daydreams of eventual release illustrate that this day is representative of his life outside the confines of prison as well, for it is more the Soviet political system than the predictable horrors of life in the labor camp that confine this hardworking everyman. As long as they are metaphorically incarcerated and denied the right to free thinking and free speech, Solzhenitsyn seems to suggest that all days are as limited as this one. As his protagonist learns to appreciate the spiritual dimension of his humble life, the author seems to suggest that prison offers an unusual opportunity to explore the world of the human spirit. Although Shukhov’s day is mostly consumed by his plotting to minimize bodily suffering, first by trying to avoid work and then by obtaining as much extra food as possible, in retrospect he appreciates the simple pleasure of being fed now that he has found some spiritual nurturance to put the rest of his existence into perspective.